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Anabolic Steroids Experiences

Anabolic steroids & bodybuilding experiences

Craig Titus & Kelly Ryan Arrested

Monday, December 26, 2005

Titus, 40, and Ryan, 33, were arrested Friday afternoon at a Stoughton nail salon after FBI agents were tipped that the two were heading to Boston to meet a friend, liquidate their assets, and flee the country.

But on the way, Ryan decided to get her toes painted a cherry red, and while she was in the Touch Nails salon, a dozen SWAT team members burst into the store and arrested her. Titus was apprehended without incident while he waited outside in his truck.

Titus will be charged with murder, Ryan with being an accessory to the crime, officials said.

Craig Titus Arrested

Craig Titus
Arrested Photo

Their jail cells are a far cry from the accommodations to which the pair had become accustomed. For the past five years they jetted around the globe, appearing in bodybuilding shows, posing for magazines, and endorsing nutritional supplements. This year alone, the pair was scheduled to make appearances in Dubai, the United Arab Emirates, Ireland, and Portugal, according to an itinerary posted on Titus's website.

''Titus had a huge presence," Terrell said. ''He was real showman, just a lot of personality."

Their travel plans took a sudden turn after Melissa James, the couple's 28-year-old live-in personal assistant, was found dead in the trunk of Ryan's red 2003 Jaguar, according to court documents. James had been bound and gagged, the car had been torched, and James's body was partially burnt.

The couple left Nevada. After their arrest, they told police that they threw James out of their Las Vegas home after they realized she had been embezzling from their business, Emperor Enterprises Inc., police said. Later, Titus told police he had also been having an affair with James.

According to police reports, Ryan told a friend that her ''life was ruined" because she had bought seven bottles of lighter fluid with her credit card at a Wal-Mart.

''She was just such a sweet girl," Frank Bohm, a bodybuilding promoter from Washington, said of Ryan. ''This whole thing is hard to believe, but that she would have anything to do with it is really tough to swallow."

Titus grew up outside of Detroit and became interested in bodybuilding when he realized that at 130 pounds, he was too small to play on his high school football team, according to his website. After high school he moved to Texas and then California, where he began to compete.

In 1995 he served a year in jail on drug charges, according to his website, but returned to competition and, with his frame carrying 260 pounds, began placing in national events around 2001.

Around that time he met Ryan. Ryan, who is from Minneapolis, was a competitive gymnast as a child and later attended University of South Carolina, where she started winning regional fitness titles. By the late '90s she was winning national titles and appearing on magazines, according to her website.

Titus had a reputation as the ''bad boy" of bodybuilding, Bohm said. ''He was outspoken and not everybody liked that."

Titus was also coming close to the end of his professional career and was trying to launch a bodybuilding governing body to compete with the International Federation of Body Builders, Bohm said.

Terrell said Titus had just found a location to open a store specializing in workout gear.
posted by Frank Mori, Monday, December 26, 2005 | link

Anastrozole Show Benefits Over Tamoxifen

Anastrozole Show Benefits Over Tamoxifen: "Five-year results from the Arimidex, Tamoxifen, Alone or in Combination (ATAC) trial continue to suggest that anastrozole is superior to tamoxifen in the treatment of postmenopausal women with early-stage breast cancer.

Principal investigator Anthony Howell, MD, professor, department of medical oncology, Christie Hospital NHS Trust, and director, research and development, Institute of Health Sciences, Manchester, England, presented the data here on December 8th at the 27th San Antonio Breast Cancer Symposium.

The results of the ATAC trial’s main analysis were reported in full at the SABCS in 2001. That analysis showed that at a median follow-up of 33.3 months, 89.4% of women given anastrozole were disease-free, compared with 87.4% of women given tamoxifen. Based on that analysis, the US Food and Drug Administration approved anastrozole (Arimidex, AstraZeneca) for the adjuvant treatment of early breast cancer in postmenopausal women with hormone receptor-positive disease.

The updated analysis shows that the absolute difference in disease-free survival continues to increase over time, Dr. Howell said. At a median follow-up of 68 months, treatment with anastrozole led to a 13% increase in disease-free survival (P =.01), a 21% reduction in time to recurrence (P =.0005), and a 42% reduction in contralateral breast cancer "
posted by Frank Mori, Monday, December 26, 2005 | link

IFBB Pro Craig Titus & Kelly Ryan Murder Acussed !

Thursday, December 22, 2005

Authorities are searching for husband and wife bodybuilders in the slaying of a woman whose body was found last week in the trunk of a burned Jaguar sedan.

Craig Titus and Kelly Ryan are wanted on murder and arson charges.

Las Vegas police have not offered a motive for the killing or the name of the victim. They believe the victim was a 28-year-old woman who had lived with the couple in southwest Las Vegas.

The 5-foot-9-inch, 250-pound Titus won titles at the June 1996 National Physique Committee USA Championships, and competed in Mr. Olympia events.

Ryan is a past Fitness America and Fitness International winner and Fitness Olympia runner-up who worked as a loan officer for Silver State Mortgage in Las Vegas.

You can see a tv video of this news at

News Video
posted by Frank Mori, Thursday, December 22, 2005 | link

Anabolic-androgenic steroids and related substances.

Monday, December 19, 2005

Yesalis CE, Bahrke MS. Pennsylvania State University, 114 Henderson Building, University Park, PA 16802, USA.

Testosterone is the primary male sex hormone, and anabolic-androgenic steroids are synthetic derivatives of testosterone. Anabolic steroids are used to enhance athletic performance and appearance. Adverse effects include those on the liver, serum lipids, psyche/behavior, and the reproductive system. Androstenedione is an anabolic-androgenic steroid used to increase blood testosterone levels for the purposes of increasing strength, lean body mass, and sexual performance. However, there is no research indicating androstenedione or its related compounds, significantly increases strength and/or lean body mass by increasing testosterone levels. The long-term health effects of prolonged androstenedione supplementation are unknown. Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) is a weak androgen also used to elevate testosterone levels. DHEA is also advertised as an antiobesity and antiaging supplement capable of improving libido, vitality, and immunity levels. However, research demonstrates that DHEA supplementation does not increase serum testosterone concentrations or increase strength in men, and it may have virilizing effects on women.
posted by Frank Mori, Monday, December 19, 2005 | link

Current concepts in anabolic-androgenic steroids.

Friday, December 16, 2005

Evans NA. UCLA-Orthopaedic Hospital, Los Angeles, California, USA.

Anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) are synthetic derivatives of testosterone. According to surveys and media reports, the legal and illegal use of these drugs is gaining popularity. Testosterone restores sex drive and boosts muscle mass, making it central to 2 of society's rising preoccupations: perfecting the male body and sustaining the male libido. The anabolic effects of AAS have been questioned for decades, but recent scientific investigation of supraphysiologic doses supports the efficacy of these regimens. Testosterone has potent anabolic effects on the musculoskeletal system, including an increase in lean body mass, a dose-related hypertrophy of muscle fibers, and an increase in muscle strength. For athletes requiring speed and strength and men desiring a cosmetic muscle makeover, illegal steroids are a powerful lure, despite the risk of subjective side effects. Recent clinical studies have discovered novel therapeutic uses for physiologic doses of AAS, without any significant adverse effects in the short term. In the wake of important scientific advances during the past decade, the positive and negative effects of AAS warrant reevaluation. Guidelines for the clinical evaluation of AAS users will be presented for sports medicine practitioners.
posted by Frank Mori, Friday, December 16, 2005 | link

Effects of androgens on haemostasis.

Wednesday, December 14, 2005

Winkler UH. Zentrum fur Frauenheilkunde, Universitatsklinikum Essen, Germany.

Androgen deficiency is associated with an increased incidence of cardiovascular disease. There is evidence that thromboembolic disease as well as myocardial ifarction in hypogonadic males are mediated by low baseline fibrinolytic activity.

Hypogonadism in males is associated with an enhancement of fibrinolytic inhibition via increased synthesis of the plasminogen activator inhibitor PAI 1. On the other hand, stanozolol and danazol reduce PAI 1 and are associated with increased fibrinolytic activity. However, in male abusers of anabolic steroids the net effect on the haemostatic system may change from anti- to prothrombotic; there appears to be an individual threshold dose above which thrombogenic effects on platelets and vasomotion may overcome the profibrinolytic effects on PAI 1. There are numerous reports on weight-lifters dying of atherothrombotic ischemic heart disease while abusing anabolic steroids. Androgens are known to have profound effects on carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. In fact, much of the individual inconsistency of the effects of androgens on fibrinolytic and haemostatic activity appears to be based on the close interrelationship of these metabolic systems. Androgens may have unfavourable effects on the HDL/LDL cholesterol ratio, on triglyceride levels and on the insulin/insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF 1) system. Hypertriglyceridemia as well as insulin resistance are both associated with low fibrinolytic activity and increased PAI 1 levels.

On the other hand, lipoprotein(a), a recently acknowledged independent risk factor of CVD was shown to respond favourable to androgen treatment, in men as well as in women. In women, agonistic as well as antagonistic effects of estrogens and progestins need to be taken into account. In fact, estradiol may modulate testosterone effects on haemostasis. Androgen medication in premenopausal women, such as danazol, was found to reduce PAI 1 suggesting an improvement of the fibrinolytic activity. Also, in hormone replacement therapy (HRT) androgenic progestins or complex compounds with androgenic effects are associated with a marked reduction of PAI 1 and an improvement of fibrinolytic activity. Further improvement of fibrinolytic activity may be associated with the marked decrease of lipoprotein (a) (Lp(a)) in women on androgenic HRT. However, little is known on the interrelationship of estrogens, 19-nortestosterone or progesterone derivatives and testosterone. an interrelationship that may have substantial impact on the metabolic and particularly haemostatic net effects of a preparation. In summary, information on the effects of androgens on haemostasis is limited and may be particularly incomplete due to the fact that interaction with other sex steroids appears to be an important confounder. In any case, there are numerous effects of synthetic androgens on the synthesis and release of haemostatic factors, namely an increase of the inhibitors of coagulation and a decrease of the inhibitor of the fibrinolytic system. However, the use of androgens in patients with congenital deficiencies of these coagulation factors or previous events of cardiovascular disease has yielded disappointing results. On the other hand, particularly the reduction of fibrinolytic inhibition (PAI 1) and Lp(a) were considered favourable effects of androgens with regard to the risk of cardiovascular disease. Differences between preparations with pronounced androgenic versus antiandrogenic effects and the effect of combined preparations need to be studied in much more detail. The profibrinolytic effects of androgens may be of particular interest with regard to favourable effects of HRT on cardiovascular disease.
posted by Frank Mori, Wednesday, December 14, 2005 | link

Testosterone action on skeletal muscle.

Tuesday, December 13, 2005

Herbst KL, Bhasin S. UCLA School of Medicine, Charles R. Drew University, Los Angeles, California 90059, USA.

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To highlight recent data demonstrating direct anabolic effects of androgens on the mammalian skeletal muscle and review the mechanisms by which testosterone regulates body composition.

RECENT FINDINGS: Testosterone increases lean body mass and decreases fat mass in young men; the magnitude of the changes induced by testosterone in lean and fat mass are correlated with testosterone dose and the prevalent testosterone concentrations. Older men are as responsive to the anabolic effects of testosterone on the muscle as young men, but have increased frequency of adverse events with higher testosterone doses. This reciprocal change in lean and fat mass induced by androgens is best explained by the hypothesis that androgens promote the commitment of mesenchymal pluripotent cells into myogenic lineage and inhibit adipogenesis through an androgen receptor mediated pathway. Resident muscle satellite cells increase in number with testosterone administration forming myoblasts leading to greater numbers of myonuclei in larger myofibers. Testosterone administration is associated with increased size of motor neurons. The roles of 5-alpha reduction and aromatization of testosterone into dihydrotestosterone and estradiol, respectively, in mediating testosterone effects on body composition are poorly understood.

SUMMARY: Testosterone induces skeletal muscle hypertrophy by multiple mechanisms, including its effects in modulating the commitment of pluripotent mesenchymal cells. These changes in skeletal muscle lead to improved muscle strength and leg power; however, further studies are needed to determine the effects of testosterone on physical function and health-related outcomes in sarcopenia associated with aging and chronic illness.
posted by Frank Mori, Tuesday, December 13, 2005 | link

Stronger Muscles With Exercise, Nutrition, Anabolic Steroids

Monday, December 12, 2005

Aagaard P. Institute of Sports Sciences and Clinical Biomechanics, University of Southern Denmark and Sports Medicine Research Unit, Bispebjerg Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark.

As described in this review, maximal muscle strength is strongly influenced by resistive-types of exercise, which induce adaptive changes in both neuromuscular function and muscle morphology.
  • Further, timed intake of protein in conjunction with resistance training elicit greater strength and muscle size gains than resistance training alone.

  • Creatine supplementation amplifies the hypertrophic response to resistance training, although some individuals may not respond positively. Locally produced muscle growth factors are upregulated during creatine supplementation, which contributes to increase the responsiveness of muscle cells to intensive training stimuli.

  • Usage of anabolic steroids boosts muscle hypertrophy beyond inherent genetical limits, not only by increasing the DNA transcription rate for myofibrillar proteins but also by increasing the nucleus-to-cytoplasm ratio due to accelerated activation of myogenic satellite cells. However, severe tissue damaging effects exist with the improper abuse of anabolic steroids.
posted by Frank Mori, Monday, December 12, 2005 | link

Optimum Nutrition & Lean Body Mass

Sunday, December 11, 2005

Anabolic steroid therapy is much more effective when a high-protein (one or more grams of protein per pound of bodyweight per day) slightly hyper-caloric diet is maintained consistently, along with resistance weight training (one hour, three to four times a week) and an adequate micronutrient program.

Whey protein powder, a byproduct of cheese manufacturing, is the most bioavailable protein known (eggs and meats follow). One small but interesting study showed that over a three month period HIV patients using whey protein gained between 4 and 15 pounds (without anabolic steroids). This type of new "high-tech" protein has also been shown to increase tissue glutathione levels and glutathione content in blood mononuclear cells, which no other commonly available protein supplement seems to do. It also does not seem to cause GI disturbance, like gas, bloating and diarrhea, commonly seen with other protein supplements.
posted by Frank Mori, Sunday, December 11, 2005 | link

Effect of Creatine Phosphate Supplementation on Anaerobic Working Capacity and Body Weight After Two and Six Days of Loading in Men and Women

Saturday, December 10, 2005

By Eckerson, J.M., J.R. Stout, G.A. Moore, N. J. Stone, K.A. Iwan, A.N. Gebauer, and R. Ginsberg

Effect of creatine phosphate supplementation on anaerobic working capacity and body weight after two and six days of loading in men and women. J. Strength Cond. Res. 19(4):756–763.—

The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of 2 and 6 days of creatine phosphate loading on anaerobic working capacity (AWC) and body weight (BW) in men and women.

Sixty-one men (n = 31) and women (n = 30) randomly received 1 of 3 treatments (4 × 5 g d-1 × 6 days) using a double blind design: (a) 18 g dextrose as placebo (PL); (b) 5.0 g Cr + 20 g dextrose (Cr); or (c) 5.0 g Cr + 18 g dextrose + 4 g of sodium and potassium phosphates (CrP). AWC was determined at baseline and following 2 and 6 days of supplementation using the Critical Power Test.

BW increased significantly over time, and the mean value for the men was significantly greater compared to that for women, but there were no interactions (p > 0.05). There were gender-specific responses for AWC expressed in both absolute values (kJ) and relative to BW (kJ  kg-1), with the women demonstrating no significant interactions.

For the men, Creatine Phosphate loading significantly increased anaerobic working capacity following 2 days (23.8%) and 6 days (49.8%) of supplementation vs. PL (kJ and kJ kg-1). Cr supplementation increased AWC 13–15% in both genders compared to PL (1.1%– 3.0% decline); although this result was not statistically significant, it may have some practical significance.
posted by Frank Mori, Saturday, December 10, 2005 | link

Turkish weightlifting star banned

Friday, December 09, 2005

The Turkish weightlifting star Halil Mutlu has been given a two-year ban by the International Weightlifting Federation for using anabolic steroids.

The three-time Olympic weightlifting champion tested positive during the European Championships in April.

The 32-year-old Turkish star has denied knowingly using nandrolone claiming his food could have been tampered with.

Mutlu won the 56kg gold medal at last year's Athens Olympics, adding to the titles he won in Sydney in 2000 and the 1996 Atlanta Games.
posted by Frank Mori, Friday, December 09, 2005 | link

Sex Influences On The Protein Anabolic Response To Insulin.

Wednesday, December 07, 2005

The influence of sex on the protein anabolic response to insulin.

Chevalier S, Marliss EB, Morais JA, Lamarche M, Gougeon R. McGill Nutrition and Food Science Centre, McGill University Health Centre-Royal Victoria Hospital, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H3A 1A1.

We hypothesize that sex influences whole-body protein anabolism in the postabsorptive state and in response to hyperinsulinemia.

Kinetics of 3-(3)H-glucose and (13)C-leucine were studied in 16 men and 15 women after energy- and protein-controlled diets, before and during a hyperinsulinemic, euglycemic, isoaminoacidemic clamp. In the postabsorptive state, women had 20% higher rates of leucine Ra (protein breakdown) and nonoxidative Rd (synthesis) adjusted for fat-free mass than men but net leucine balance was as negative.

In response to hyperinsulinemia, leucine oxidation rates increased only in women and the change in net leucine balance was less than in men. Net leucine balance during the clamp correlated with rates of glucose disposal. Thus, women showed greater protein turnover rates when adjusted for fat free mass in the postabsorptive state, and lesser insulin sensitivity of protein anabolism and net protein accretion.

A relationship exists between the protein anabolic response to insulin and the insulin sensitivity of glucose metabolism.
posted by Frank Mori, Wednesday, December 07, 2005 | link

Androgens and body composition in the aging male

Tuesday, December 06, 2005

Moretti C, Frajese GV, Guccione L, Wannenes F, De Martino MU, Fabbri A, Frajese G.Unit of Endocrinology, University of Roma Tor Vergata, AFaR Fatebenefratelli Hospital San Giovanni Calibita, Isola Tiberina, Italy.

The relevant age-related changes in male body composition are mainly related to the progressive decrease in the level of circulating anabolic hormones, among which testosterone (T) is rather important. Its decline, between the ages of 35 and 75, is associated to a loss of muscle mass and fibers number, a doubling of fat mass and a decrease in bone mineral density by 0.3% per yr after age 35; thus the relationship between age-related changes in body composition and T bioactivity reflects an important endocrine aspect of the aging male. The assessment of human body composition and in particular the evaluation of fat tissue and its distribution, is currently standardized by the use of dual-energy x-ray absorpiometry (DXA). In the present paper we review the mechanisms through which testosterone may inhibit adipogenesis, restore the myogenic programme enhancing the protein turnover at muscle level and maintain bone mineral density in elderly men.
posted by Frank Mori, Tuesday, December 06, 2005 | link

The Facts About Anabolic Steroids

Monday, December 05, 2005

By: Rick Mitchell

Anyone involved in the world of bodybuilding, and competitive sport generally, will understand the pressures that go with striving to achieve optimal performance. Sometimes athletes feel they cannot reach their peak without artificially enhancing their powers of recovery from intensive training. One way to speed up this process is through the use of anabolic steroids. In this article we'll examine what anabolic steroids actually do. In a second article we'll focus on the dangers associated with steroid use.

The main active ingredient in steroids is testosterone which is well known as the major male hormone. Testosterone affects the body in two ways, either as an anabolic or an androgenic influence. The anabolic action helps build body tissue by increasing lean muscle mass and bone density. The androgenic actions are those that affect secondary sex characteristics in men.

In recent years research has provided some interesting information in relation to testosterone:
  1. It affects muscle size through muscle fiber hypertrophy with an increase in the cross-sectional area of muscle fiber.

  2. It takes a dose of at least 300 milligrams of testosterone to raise the body's level above normal.

  3. It acts directly on the muscle itself.

  4. It stimulates the release of growth hormone.

  5. It has an anti-catabolic effect.

From these facts we can deduce that testosterone is an effective aid to muscle building and that it must be taken in significant quantities to have this effect. As far as bodybuilding is concerned the science beyond this is somewhat limited as most users base their steroid regimes on little more than trial and error or the advice of 'veterans'. Due to the illegal nature of steroid use little scientific data exists to confirm the effectiveness of the many steroid supplements in use.

It is perhaps the tendency of some bodybuilders to use a combination of powerful steroids and other drugs that presents the very real dangers that have sometimes led to tragic conquences.

About The Author
Richard Mitchell is the creator of the bodybuildingadvisor.com website that provides guidance and information to athletes at all levels of bodybuilding experience. Go to Bodybuilding Advice to learn more about the issues covered in this article.
posted by Frank Mori, Monday, December 05, 2005 | link

How Anabolic Steroids Work ?

Sunday, December 04, 2005

Male hormones, principally testosterone, are partially responsible for the tremendous developmental changes that occur during puberty and adolescence. Male hormones have androgenic and anabolic effects. Androgenic effects are changes in primary and secondary sexual characteristics. These include enlargement of the penis and testes, voice changes, hair growth on the face, axilla, and genital areas, and increased aggressiveness. The anabolic effects of androgens include accelerated growth of muscle, bone, and red blood cells, and enhanced neural conduction.

Anabolic steroids have been manufactured to enhance the anabolic properties (tissue building) of the androgens and minimize the androgenic (sex-linked) properties. However, no steroid has eliminated the androgenic effects because the so-called androgenic effects are really anabolic effects in sex-linked tissues. The effects of male hormones on accessory sex glands, genital hair growth, and oiliness of the skin are anabolic processes in those tissues. The steroids with the most potent anabolic effect are also those with the greatest androgenic effect.
posted by Frank Mori, Sunday, December 04, 2005 | link

Androgenic-anabolic Steroids Effects In Athletes.

Saturday, December 03, 2005

Hartgens F, Kuipers H. Department of Surgery, Outpatient Clinic Sports Medicine, University Hospital Maastricht, and Sports Medicine Center Maastricht, Maastricht, The Netherlands.

Androgenic-anabolic steroids (AAS) are synthetic derivatives of the male hormone testosterone. They can exert strong effects on the human body that may be beneficial for athletic performance.

A review of the literature revealed that most laboratory studies did not investigate the actual doses of AAS currently abused in the field. Therefore, those studies may not reflect the actual (adverse) effects of steroids. The available scientific literature describes that short-term administration of these drugs by athletes can increase strength and bodyweight. Strength gains of about 5-20% of the initial strength and increments of 2-5 kg bodyweight, that may be attributed to an increase of the lean body mass, have been observed. A reduction of fat mass does not seem to occur. Although AAS administration may affect erythropoiesis and blood haemoglobin concentrations, no effect on endurance performance was observed. Little data about the effects of AAS on metabolic responses during exercise training and recovery are available and, therefore, do not allow firm conclusions.

The main untoward effects of short- and long-term AAS abuse that male athletes most often self-report are an increase in sexual drive, the occurrence of acne vulgaris, increased body hair and increment of aggressive behaviour. AAS administration will disturb the regular endogenous production of testosterone and gonadotrophins that may persist for months after drug withdrawal. Cardiovascular risk factors may undergo deleterious alterations, including elevation of blood pressure and depression of serum high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-, HDL2- and HDL3-cholesterol levels. In echocardiographic studies in male athletes, AAS did not seem to affect cardiac structure and function, although in animal studies these drugs have been observed to exert hazardous effects on heart structure and function. In studies of athletes, AAS were not found to damage the liver. Psyche and behaviour seem to be strongly affected by AAS. Generally, AAS seem to induce increments of aggression and hostility. Mood disturbances (e.g. depression, [hypo-]mania, psychotic features) are likely to be dose and drug dependent. AAS dependence or withdrawal effects (such as depression) seem to occur only in a small number of AAS users. Dissatisfaction with the body and low self-esteem may lead to the so-called 'reverse anorexia syndrome' that predisposes to the start of AAS use. Many other adverse effects have been associated with AAS misuse, including disturbance of endocrine and immune function, alterations of sebaceous system and skin, changes of haemostatic system and urogenital tract. One has to keep in mind that the scientific data may underestimate the actual untoward effects because of the relatively low doses administered in those studies, since they do not approximate doses used by illicit steroid users.

The mechanism of action of AAS may differ between compounds because of variations in the steroid molecule and affinity to androgen receptors. Several pathways of action have been recognised. The enzyme 5-alpha-reductase seems to play an important role by converting AAS into dihydrotestosterone (androstanolone) that acts in the cell nucleus of target organs, such as male accessory glands, skin and prostate. Other mechanisms comprises mediation by the enzyme aromatase that converts AAS in female sex hormones (estradiol and estrone), antagonistic action to estrogens and a competitive antagonism to the glucocorticoid receptors. Furthermore, AAS stimulate erythropoietin synthesis and red cell production as well as bone formation but counteract bone breakdown. The effects on the cardiovascular system are proposed to be mediated by the occurrence of AAS-induced atherosclerosis (due to unfavourable influence on serum lipids and lipoproteins), thrombosis, vasospasm or direct injury to vessel walls, or may be ascribed to a combination of the different mechanisms. AAS-induced increment of muscle tissue can be attributed to hypertrophy and the formation of new muscle fibres, in which key roles are played by satellite cell number and ultrastructure, androgen receptors and myonuclei.
posted by Frank Mori, Saturday, December 03, 2005 | link

Health News About Steroids

Friday, December 02, 2005

There is tremendous confusion and misconception about steroids. While the professional sports world wrestles with rules and regulations about steroid use, medical doctors continue to prescribe steroids for a number of health conditions such as arthritis, asthma and even skin disorders.

Despite a flurry of information on steroids, too few of us actually understand what steroids are, what they can do to the body – and what they can do for it.

“The news on steroids is not all bad,” explains Kevin Plancher, M.D., a leading NY-area orthopaedist, sports medicine expert and official orthopaedic surgeon of the U.S. Ski and Snowboard teams. “In fact, some of the news is quite good.” Much of the current confusion over these drugs stems from the fact that the term “steroid” is used to describe numerous synthetic drugs that affect hormone levels in the body. “Of course, that means that steroids are used every day to effectively – and legally – treat a host of medical conditions,” Dr. Plancher says. “The key is in differentiating these drugs from the ones that are apt to do more harm than good,” he adds.

The “Good” Steroids
Corticosteroids differ chemically from the anabolic-androgenic steroids that are the talk of the sports media today. “Corticosteroids are vital to the practice of medicine,” Dr. Plancher notes. “Because they exhibit potent anti-inflammatory effects, they are used most commonly to treat arthritis, as well as short-term inflammation associated with orthopedic injuries,” he adds. “Corticosteroids are also widely used to treat asthma, in both inhalant and oral applications.” In addition, they are popular active ingredients in topical creams used to treat rashes and other skin disorders.

Even the “Bad” Steroids have a good side…
Anabolic Androgenic Steroids replicate male hormones in the body, and are among those drugs used illegally by athletes and bodybuilders to enhance their performance. Yet, even this class of drugs has a potentially beneficial medical use. “Anabolic steroids have a very limited scope of legal use here in the United States,” Dr. Plancher says. “But they can be helpful in a number of critical situations, and there is research underway to study their effects in still other problematic areas where current protocols are not yielding optimal results.”

For example, some patients suffering with long-term, serious illnesses can develop Chronic Wasting Disease, marked by drastic weight loss and an inability to gain it back – no matter how much they eat. “Anecdotally, we hear of patients who take Anabolic Androgenic Steroids to regain lean muscle after being diagnosed with Chronic Wasting Disease, and the evidence is positive,” Dr. Plancher notes. Similarly, pilot studies have been exploring the effectiveness of this class of steroids to assist in the rehabilitation of patients with COPD, and to address certain problems that can lead to infertility.

“We want to avoid the common misperception that all steroids are alike,” Dr. Plancher explains. “But at the same time, we also must stress that any time a patient is taking any kind of steroid, he or she should be closely monitored by a physician,” he adds. That’s because many of the same problems associated with Anabolic Androgenic Steroid abuse can also occur with other steroids. “Doctors whose patients are taking steroids, whether for arthritis, asthma, rehabilitation, or as an experimental treatment for a serious medical condition, should be watchful for a number of serious potential side effects,” he says. They include liver and kidney malfunction, cardiovascular problems due to increased levels of LDL (“bad” cholesterol), hypertension, and stunted growth in adolescents. Other potential risks are cosmetic, such as the development of severe acne, and psychological, such as depression or rage.

“Yet, all of these symptoms are far less likely to occur if a doctor is managing the quality, duration and dosage of the steroid therapy,” Dr. Plancher assures. “The key to successfully using these or any other drugs is to use the smallest dose of the best medication available to treat the exact duration of any given medical condition.”

Kevin D. Plancher, M.D., M.S., F.A.C.S., F.A.A.O.S, is a leading orthopaedic surgeon and sports medicine expert with extensive practice in knee, shoulder, elbow and hand injuries. Dr.Plancher is an Associate Clinical Professor in Orthopaedics at Albert Einstein College of Medicine in NY. He is on the Editorial Review Board of the Journal of American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons and the American Journal of Medicine and Sports.
posted by Frank Mori, Friday, December 02, 2005 | link

Anabolic Responses to Weight Training

Anabolic responses to resistance training in older men and women: a brief review.

Galvao DA, Newton RU, Taaffe DR. School of Biomedical and Sports Science, Edith Cowan University, Joondalup, Western Australia.

Resistance training has been shown to be the most effective exercise mode to induce anabolic adaptations in older men and women. Advances in imaging techniques and histochemistry have increased the ability to detect such changes, confirming the high level of adaptability that remains in aging skeletal muscle. This brief review presents a summary of the resistance-training studies that directly compare chronic anabolic responses to training in older (>60 years) men and women. Sixteen studies are summarized, most of which indicate similar relative anabolic responses between older men and women after resistance training. Relatively small sample sizes in most of the interventions limited their ability to detect significant sex differences and should be considered when interpreting these studies. Future research should incorporate larger sample sizes with multiple measurement time points for anabolic responses.
posted by Frank Mori, Friday, December 02, 2005 | link

Acute hormonal responses to submaximal and maximal heavy resistance and explosive exercises in men and women.

Thursday, December 01, 2005

Linnamo V, Pakarinen A, Komi PV, Kraemer WJ, Hakkinen K. Neuromuscular Research Center, Department of Biology of Physical Activity, University of Jyvaskyla, Jyvaskyla, Finland.

The purpose of this study was to examine acute hormonal and neuromuscular responses in men and women to 3 heavy resistance but clearly different exercise protocols:
  1. Submaximal heavy resistance exercise (SME)

  2. Maximal heavy resistance exercise (HRE)

  3. Maximal explosive resistance exercise (EE).

HRE included 5 sets of 10 repetition maximum (10RM) sit-ups, bench press, and bilateral leg extensions (David 210 machine) with a 2-minute recovery between the sets. In SME, the load was 70%, and in EE, the load was 40% from that used in HRE. A significant increase (p < 0.05) in serum growth hormone (GH) was observed after HRE both in men and women, but the increase was greater (p < 0.05) in men than in women. Serum testosterone (T) increased significantly (p < 0.05) only during HRE in men. Since GH and T are anabolic hormones, the acute exercise-induced response during HRE may play an important role in the long-term anabolic adaptation processes related to muscle hypertrophy and maximal strength development.
posted by Frank Mori, Thursday, December 01, 2005 | link